First Hop Redundancy Protocol Notes

Hot Standby Router Protocol – is one method to use when applying FHRP to a network. This option is used between two routers in an active\standby state, meaning only one router is used to send traffic and the other simply waits until a failure has occurred to become active.

HSRP failover – happens when the partner router goes down, to stop hosts from having to adjust settings HSRP uses VMACS or virtual MAC addresses that are the same on all routers using HSRP.

HSRP load balancing is performed per subnet splitting the network traffic among routers.

GLBP is similar to HSRP, but load balances per host alternating default gateway assignment between routers.

Active Virtual Gateway (AVG) – controls the assignment of hosts to routers using GLBP.

FHRP types:

Protocol Type Vendor
HSRP Cisco
GLBP Cisco

Key terms: single-point of failure, HSRP, VRRP, GLBP, VMAC, Virtual IP, AVG


To reduce or eliminate single points of failure FHRP is used to create failover routers and load balancing routers to reduce the network’s downtime.